Mehrzad Ferdows stated that today, around the world, the business has become very challenging and competitive. In order to remain profitable in such a situation, all factors of production must be managed wisely and adequately. Among the factors of production, the most challenge and effort are spent on the management and management of human resources. Unlike other elements, employee management necessitates intellectual and emotional skills; Manpower is the most critical knowledge capital of any organization. Organizations need to implement and use this significant and vital force for more productivity and development and reinforce the creativity and motivation of employees, and they have no choice but to pay attention to their opinions and ideas or create ways to address their concerns. All organizations and corporations strive for survival, progress, and development. Scientific research, using appropriate tools, models, and analytical methods, plays a key role in identifying human and non-human resources that are essential for the survival and development of the organization.
Mehrzad Ferdows added that the workforce is considered one of the most valuable human resources, the most critical competitive advantage, and the rarest resource in today’s knowledge-based economy. This valuable asset has snatched the lead from other organizational assets in terms of importance due to its tremendous impact on its effectiveness. Today, organizations and managers are trying to attract the best and most skilled human resources by using different strategies and methods. One of the valuable characteristics of human resources that have attracted much attention today is organizational citizenship behavior.
Inspired by a good citizen, this variable describes an employee who performs his duties and, in general, to help the organization perform better, spares no effort to go even further than the pre-arranged tasks. In other words, employees with organizational citizenship behavior, like committed citizens, are willing to strive for the betterment of the organization without any expectations.
Mehrzad Ferdows pointed out that many management experts believe that human resources are among the most valuable organizational assets. So that in recent years, management texts have changed from looking at employees as a workforce to human resources and human capital. While creating added value in products and services, efficient and knowledge-based human resources help create a competitive advantage and sustainable organizational development. Therefore, evaluating and improving employee performance is one of the factors guaranteeing the growth and development of organizations.
Over the past eight decades, employee evaluation and improvement have always been at the forefront of the organization’s management evaluations and plans. One of the most critical factors that can use employees’ behaviors, attitudes, and interactions to improve service quality is organizational citizenship behavior. Today, various factors affect citizenship behavior, including justice, trust, management, leadership, moral values, quality of working life, etc. One of the main foundations of management actions in the present age is to build trust between employees and managers, and one of the essential steps in moving towards shaping this behavior is to build trust. Mehrzad Ferdows added that he believes that lawful interactions between employees and managers have created a relationship based on trust between them, creating cohesion, ensuring positive future interactions.
Aspects of managerial behavior that build trust are stability, cohesion, sharing and delegating control, communication, and having special considerations. Of course, to implement the concept of citizenship in the organization, other areas must be considered. The idea that trust in the workplace is a potentially significant factor in improving organizational performance and can be a source of long-term competitive advantage has also gained immediate attention.
Mehrzad Ferdows added that in an age of dynamism and complexity, most managers want employees to work beyond their job description duties, go beyond expectations, and voluntarily engage in behaviors that are not part of their official job duties. In general, those job behaviors of employees that have a significant impact on the practical effectiveness of the organization have attracted the attention of many researchers and managers. In the past, researchers have looked at the relationship between employee behaviors and organizational effectiveness in their study by examining the relationship between employee behaviors and organizational effectiveness. For almost two decades, researchers have distinguished between in-role performance and extra-role performance. Extra-role performance refers to job behaviors beyond the formal roles of employees, which are optional and usually not considered in the organization’s standard reward system. These behaviors are the same as organizational citizen behaviors.
Organizational citizen behavior includes voluntary employee behaviors that are not designed in the formal employee reward system and are not part of the individual’s standard duties. However, he performs them and as positive actions are part of employee activities to improve productivity and cohesion in the environment. Work is the connection and solidarity between the members of the organization. Overall, it effectively enhances the tasks and roles of the organization and promotes organizational effectiveness and performance. These behaviors are desirable for any organization because they are related to effectiveness and productivity and influence cooperation, organizational commitment, and organizational performance.
Mehrzad Ferdows stated that the behavior of the organizational citizen is known with characteristics such as conscientiousness, altruism, citizen virtue, chivalry, and respect, which can create a suitable environment for improving the quality of life to promote organizational justice.
Mehrzad Ferdows added that citizenship behavior is the voluntary actions of employees that help a lot in promoting effective performance. Satisfaction with intra-organizational relationships enables the organization to operate effectively and is a strong predictor of organizational outcomes such as job performance and citizenship behavior. Citizenship behavior goes beyond the job duties necessary for the effectiveness of the organization’s activities and the achievement of the organization’s goals. Accurate and sufficient information is essential in developing appropriate methods for determining allocation decisions. Fair practices can be a tool used to convey the message to employees that they are valuable people to the organization. Available sources show that organizational communication and justice significantly impact employee attitudes and behavior, respectively.
Mehrzad Ferdows continued that when employees are satisfied with the type of relationships experienced in the organization, the quality of relationships, reliability, and the possibility of speaking openly in the organization; satisfaction and citizenship behavior, a rational basis can be used to assume that justice is perceived as a mediator of citizenship satisfaction and behavior relationships; Satisfaction as a mediator of understanding justice and citizenship behavior. Naturally, when organizations have employees with citizenship behavior, they are not concerned about the effectiveness and can compete in a competition with the thought of investing in other areas. Therefore, strengthening the trust of organizational citizenship behaviors enhances the performance and efficiency of organizations and ensures their long-term survival. Therefore, recognizing the effects of different types of corporate trust on organizational citizenship behavior is helpful for many managers looking to increase effectiveness.
Mehrzad Ferdows concluded that loyal employees are likely to work overtime if necessary, have a high work conscience, complain less about harsh working conditions, and take steps to improve the organization’s image in the community. Such activities are because such employees trust the organization, their colleagues, and managers, consider the organization their supporter and do not consider themselves separate from the organization.
Leading entrepreneur, advisor, investor, and industrial engineering graduate from the University of Southern California